The Animal PARCHMENT or VELLUM, was developed from goat skins from the Northeast of Brazil because they have less fat, providing a PARCHMENT OR VELLUM more elaborate and high quality final product.
The Animal PARCHMENT or VELLUM is selected according to its thickness, as needed by the client and for the intended purpose, diplomas, Abatjour, Finish Furniture, Business Cards, Tributes, Invitations, markers and a plethora of books Decor and Antique items. The Animal PARCHMENT or VELLUM have different nuances due to its unique skin being white, and spotted goats, providing spots characteristics of the animal itself.
As for its use in this Diplomas for College stands out for great printing graphics and also when it is printed and can be touched up if any mistake.
Parchment is a thin material made from hide; often calfskin, sheepskin or goatskin, and often split. Its most common use was as a material for writing on, for documents, notes, or the pages of a book, codex or manuscript. It is distinct from leather in that parchment is limed but not tanned; therefore, it is very reactive to changes in relative humidity and is not waterproof. Finer-quality parchment is called vellum.
Parchment was developed in Pergamon, from which name it is believed the word "parchment" evolved, under the patronage of either Eumenes I, who ruled 263–241 BCE; or Eumenes II, who ruled 197–158), as a substitute for papyrus, which was temporarily not being exported from Alexandria, its only source.
Herodotus mentions writing on skins as common in his time, the 5th century BCE; and in his Histories (v.58) he states that the Ionians of Asia Minor had been accustomed to give the name of skins (diphtherai) to books; this word was adapted by Hellenized Jews to describe scrolls. Parchment, however, derives its name from Pergamon, the city where it was perfected (via the Latin pergamenum and the French parchemin). In the 2nd century BCE a great library was set up in Pergamon that rivalled the famous Library of Alexandria. As prices rose for papyrus and the reed used for making it was over-harvested towards local extinction in the two nomes of the Nile delta that produced it, Pergamon adapted by increasing use of parchment.
Writing on prepared animal skins had a long history, however. David Diringer noted that "the first mention of Egyptian documents written on leather goes back to the Fourth Dynasty (c. 2550-2450 BCE), but the earliest of such documents extant are: a fragmentary roll of leather of the Sixth Dynasty(c. twenty-fourth century BCE), unrolled by Dr. H. Ibscher, and preserved in the Cairo Museum; a roll of the Twelfth Dynasty (c. 1990-1777 BCE) now in Berlin; the mathematical text now in the British Museum (MS. 10250); and a document of the reign of Ramses II (early thirtheenth century BCE).". Though the Assyrians and the Babylonians impressed their cuneiform on clay tablets, they also wrote on parchment from the 6th century BCE onward. Rabbinic literature traditionally maintains that the institution of employing parchment made of animal hides for the writing of ritual objects such as the Torah, mezuzah, and tefillin is Sinaitic in origin, with special designations for different types of parchment such as gevil and klaf. Early Islamic texts are also found on parchment.
One sort of parchment is vellum, a word that is used loosely to mean parchment, and especially to mean fine parchment, but more strictly refers to parchment made from calfskin (although goatskin can be as fine in quality). The words vellum and veal come from Latin vitulus, meaning calf, or itsdiminutive vitellus. In the Middle Ages, calfskin and split sheepskin were the most common materials for making parchment in England and France, while goatskin was more common in Italy. Other skins such as those from large animals such as horse and smaller animals such as squirrel and rabbit were also used. Whether uterine vellum (vellum made from aborted calf fetuses) was ever really used during the medieval period is still a matter of great controversy.
There was a short period during the introduction of printing where parchment and paper were used interchangeably: although most copies of theGutenberg Bible are on paper, some were printed on parchment. In 1490, Johannes Trithemius preferred the older methods, because "handwriting placed on parchment will be able to endure a thousand years. But how long will printing last, which is dependent on paper? For if ...it lasts for two hundred years that is a long time."
In the later Middle Ages, parchment was largely replaced by paper. New techniques in paper milling allowed it to be much cheaper and more abundant than parchment. With the advent of printing in the later fifteenth century, the demands of printers far exceeded the supply of animal skins for parchment.
The heyday of parchment use was during the medieval period, but there has been a growing revival of its use among artists since the late 20th century. Although parchment never stopped being used (primarily for governmental documents and diplomas) it had ceased to be a primary choice for artist's supports by the end of 15th century Renaissance. This was partly due to its expense and partly due to its unusual working properties. Parchment consists mostly of collagen. When the water in paint media touches parchment's surface, the collagen melts slightly, forming a raised bed for the paint, a quality highly prized by some artists.
Parchment is also extremely affected by its environment and changes in humidity, which can cause buckling. Books with parchment pages were bound with strong wooden boards and clamped tightly shut by metal (often brass) clasps or leather straps; this acted to keep the pages pressed flat despite humidity changes. Such metal fittings continued to be found on books as decorative features even after the use of paper made them unnecessary.
Some contemporary artists prize the changeability of parchment, noting that the material seems alive and like an active participant in making artwork. To support the needs of the revival of use by artists, a revival in the art of making individual skins is also underway. Handmade skins are usually better prepared for artists and have fewer oily spots which can cause long-term cracking of paint than mass-produced parchment. Mass-produced parchment is usually made for lamp shades, furniture, or other interior design purposes.
The radiocarbon dating techniques that are used on papyrus can be applied to parchment as well. They do not date the age of the writing but the preparation of the parchment itself. However, radiocarbon dating can often be used on the inks that make up the writing, since many of them contain organic compounds such as plant leachings, soot, and wine.
A differentiated product from CORTUME RUNGE. Below are some applications in Parchment sector decor! It is a very durable material, high durability and above all, beautiful. Can be used for numerous applications, such as Diplomas, certificates, paints, coatings columns, walls, and furniture.
Pergaminho animal legítimo, foi desenvolvido a partir de peles de cabras do Nordeste, pois estas apresentam menos teor de gordura, proporcionando peles mais elaboradas e de grande qualidade.
O Pergaminho animal legítimo é selecionado de acordo a sua espessura, conforme a necessidade do cliente e para o fim que se destina, diplomas de Faculdade, Abatjour, Revestimento de Móveis, Cartões de Visita, Homenagens, Convites, Marcadores de Livros e uma infinidade de artigos para Decoração e Antiquários. As peles de Pergaminho tem diversas nuances devido a sua pele original serem de cabras brancas e malhadas, proporcionando manchas características do próprio animal.
Quanto a sua utilização em Diplomas para Faculdades este se destaca pela ótima impressão em gráfica e também quando este é caligrafado, podendo ser retocado caso haja algum erro.
Na confecção de cúpulas para Abatjour , este pode ser manuseado , sendo que se esticado não altera sua composição, pois quando seco fica transparente e a Lâmpada colocada para dar luminosidade , quando esquenta não altera, não queima e não amarela a pele, ocasionando uma claridade excepcional ao ambiente. Dentro do contexto atual nosso Pergaminho supera qualquer outro que tenha no mercado, pois primamos pela qualidade . A utilização do Pergaminho em diversos artigos requer conhecimento ,pois para cada artigo deve ser considerado sua espessura.
Pergaminho (do grego pergaméne e do latim pergamina ou pergamena), é o nome dado a uma pele de animal, geralmente de cabra, carneiro, cordeiro ouovelha, preparada para nela se escrever. Designa ainda o documento escrito nesse meio. O seu nome lembra o da cidade grega de Pérgamo, na Ásia Menor, onde se acredita possa ter se originado ou distribuído.
Quando feitos de peles delicadas de bezerros ou cordeiros, eram chamados de velino. Estas peles davam um material de escrita fino, macio e claro, usado para documentos e obras importantes. Esse importante suporte da escrita também foi largamente utilizado na antiguidade ocidental, em especial na Idade Média, até a descoberta e consequente difusão do papel, uma invenção dos chineses.
Nos mosteiros cristãos eram mantidas bibliotecas de pergaminhos, onde monges letrados no período se dedicavam à cópia de manuscritos antigos, devendo-se a essa atividade monástica a sobrevivência e divulgação dos textos clássicos da cultura grega e latina no Ocidente, principalmente à época doImpério Bizantino.
Na atualidade o pergaminho é utilizado para a confecção de diplomas universitários, títulos e letras do Tesouro Nacional por ser considerado um material difícil de ser falsificado, graças às nuances naturais e à sua grande durabilidade. Se antigamente essa matéria-prima era distribuída apenas por algumas empresas da Europa, hoje na Região Nordeste do Brasil converteu-se em expressiva fonte de renda, auxiliando a economia local.
Um produto diferenciado Cortume Runge. Veja abaixo algumas aplicações de Pergaminho no setor de decoração! É um material muito resistente, alta durabilidade e além de tudo, muito bonito. Pode ser usado para inúmeras aplicações, tais como: Diplomas, certificados, pinturas, revestimentos de colunas, paredes e móveis.